Zakhar Kogan
2 min readJul 31, 2023


An oncogene infographics piece. Credits to CancerQuest, an AWESOME database of illustrated + comprehensive overviews on different cancer mechanics, e.g. immune system.


Shorties on genes

p53 factor

The major player, mutated in about 50% of human cancers. ANKRD11 is a coactivator of P53.


HER-2/neu encodes for a cell surface receptor that can stimulate cell division. The HER-2/neu gene is amplified in up to 30% of human breast cancers


The Ras gene products are involved in kinase signaling pathways that ultimately control transcription of genes, regulating cell growth and differentiation.Overexpression and amplification of RAS can lead to continuous cell proliferation.


The Myc protein is a transcription factor and controls expression of several genes.

Myc is thought to be involved in avoiding the cell death mechanism. MYC oncogenes may be activated by gene rearrangement or amplification.


SRC was the first oncogene ever discovered.

The Src protein is a tyrosine kinase which regulates cell activity.


hTERT codes for an enzyme (telomerase) that maintains chromosome ends. In most normal cells telomerase is only present during fetal development. Activation of hTERT in adult cells gives them the ability to divide indefinitely.


The Bcl-2 protein works to prevent cell death (apoptosis).Overexpression of BCL-2 allows continued division of mutated cells.

🐍 is finally free!

Global Interpreter Lock is going to be removed from Python, yeehaw!


The Slippery Math of Causation | Quanta Magazine

Three GitHub repos with nice causal inference projects/materials:




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